Walls of Constantinople, Istanbul
The first walls appeared in Constantinople at the time of Emperor Constantine the Great. Lord of the empire, who authorized to profess Christianity, had moved the capital to the banks of the Bosphorus. As legend says, he sat on his horse and drew a line with his spear along which they had to build the walls. Of course, this was only the first version of the city wall, because Constantinople was developing fast after it had become the new capital of the world after Rome. The next reconstruction works of the walls of Constantinople - already strong enough and wide - were made at time of Emperor Theodosius II. He did a lot for the city and paid special attention to its walls. They were fortified with towers and dwellings for the guards located at the bottom, while soldiers were on duty only at the top. It meant a lot in Constantinople, being besieged almost yearly... There were more than a hundred towers on the walls of Constantinople, being able to save the city during the invasion of the Arabs (7 century), Slavs, Khazars (9 century), and Avars (8 century). The walls struck foreigners with their size. The height of the building was up to 12 meters, while its width - 5. They have built gates on the walls especially for the emperors, the most famous of which were the Golden Gates. Today they are blocked, because, according to Greek legend, the liberator of Constantinople from the power of the Ottoman Turks will enter these gates... Prince Oleg (and Prince Igor) has nailed his shield over these gates as a sign of his victory over Byzantium. Next door to them there is the place where the Janissaries of Mehmet the Conqueror entered the city in 1453. Later the walls were fortified by Yedikule castle (the Museum of Torture). Despite the fact the walls were badly hit by earthquakes, part of the walls have been preserved and restored.